Dr Joseph Murray, who won the Nobel prize for his pioneering work in human organ transplants, has died aged 93.
It was in December 1954 that Dr Murray successfully transplanted a kidney between identical twins for the first time.
His work paved the way for tens of thousands of other successful human organ transplants.
Dr Murray died at the same Boston Hospital where he had performed the ground-breaking surgery.
He had learned his craft during World War II, treating badly burned soldiers.
By performing skin grafts on troops, he realised the biggest obstacle in the procedure was the immune system's rejection of foreign tissue.